** Figure – Roman numeral**

We will first look at the basic numbers and their Roman presentation as this will help us to build larger numbers.

The table below gives the overview of 1 to 4000 in Roman numeral.

Number |
Roman |

1 |
I |

2 |
II |

3 |
III |

4 |
IV |

5 |
V |

6 |
VI |

7 |
VII |

8 |
VIII |

9 |
IX |

10 |
X |

11 |
XI |

12 |
XII |

13 |
XIII |

14 |
XIV |

15 |
XV |

16 |
XVI |

17 |
XVII |

18 |
XVIII |

19 |
XIX |

20 |
XX |

27 |
XXVII |

30 |
XXX |

34 |
XXXIV |

40 |
XL |

50 |
L |

60 |
XL |

70 |
LXX |

80 |
LXXX |

90 |
XC |

100 |
C |

200 |
CC |

300 |
CCC |

400 |
CD |

500 |
D |

600 |
DC |

700 |
DCC |

800 |
DCCC |

900 |
CM |

1000 |
M |

2000 |
MM |

3000 |
MMM |

4000 |
MMMM |

Basic rule:

When a smaller number appear before a bigger one, subtract the smaller from the bigger. E.g.

IV = I is 1, V is 5. 1 comes before 5 so we subtract i.e. 5 – 1 which is 4. Therefore IV is 4.

IX = 10 – 1 which is 9. So IX is 9

XL = 50 – 10 which is 40. So XL is 40.

XC = 100 – 10 which 90. And so on like that.

When the same number follow each other, add them. E.g.

II = 2

XXX = 30

CC = 200

MMMM = 4000

When a smaller number appear after a bigger one, add the smaller to the bigger. E.g.

VI = V is 5 and I is 1. Since 1 is after 5 we add. 5 + 1 which is 6. Therefore VI is 6.

XII = 10 + 2 which is 12.

XXXIII = 30 + 3 which is 33

MCM = 1000 + 900 is 1900.

A bar on top of a figure represent thousand e.g. the figure V here is 5 while the bar at the top represent three zeros. Therefore 5000 in Roman figure is and 23000 in Roman figure is

When a number is placed between two lines with a bar on top, each line stands for one zero and the bar represent 3 zeros. E.g.

** IV is 4

** the left line represents one 0

** the right line represents another 0

** the bar is three 0.

To write 1,500,000

** remove three zeros from the back to be used for the bar

** remove two zeros to stand for the left and right lines.

** We are now left with 15.

therefore, When we re arrange properly, we have 1,500,000.

OR

** 1,500 = MD

** the three zeros will stand for 1 bar

Therefore 1,500,000 =

Having known these basic rules, we will now look at how to form larger numbers in Roman numeral.

Examples

Write the numbers below in Roman numeral

864

First split the numbers like this

800 + 60 + 4

Give the Roman numeral for each split

800 – DCCC

60 – LX

4 – IV

When combined from the top, we have DCCCLXIV

4672

4000 + 600 + 70 + 2

MMM + DC + LXX + II

= MMMDCLXXII

7943

7000 + 900 + 40 + 3

56278

56000 + 200 + 70 + 8

5. 3879462

count 3 digits from the back to represent a bar and place a comma, then count 2 digits to stand for the left and right lines, represent the remaining number direct.

OR

EXERCISE E

Write the following numbers in Roman figure

1. 683

2. 2989

3. 3672

4. 8546

5. 97596

6. 104527

7. 462092

8. 8191047

9. 355829163

10. 264810348

Figure – tally

In tally system, we use strokes to represent numbers up to four strokes, the fifth stroke will be used to cross the initial four drawn to get 5. The examples below show some numbers and their tally presentation.

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